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Parker Jackson
Parker Jackson

A Writer's Reference: A Practical and Comprehensive Guide to Writing Skills

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

a writer's reference 8th edition 13

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The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.).

If you are using more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.g.: "Berdnt (1981a) makes similar claims..."

These are images that you can find in a book. Begin the citation just like you would for the original artwork, but also cite the bibliographic information for the source in which the photograph appears, including page or reference numbers (plate, figure, etc.).

Plaintiffs contend that the work performed was not "extra work" within the above provision of the subcontract. We shall discuss this point with special reference to the $144.88 in view of the District court's findings against plaintiffs on the facts as to other items. We conclude that plaintiffs on discovering defective workmanship of defendant should have refused to proceed with the work until the condition was remedied by defendant, or should have obtained a written agreement by defendant to compensate plaintiffs for any additional work required. City of Salisbury v. Lynch-McDonald Const. Co., Mo. App., 261 S.W. 356; Orpheum Theater & Realty Co. v. Kansas City Casualty Co., Mo.Sup., 239 S.W. 841.

Catalog Description: A process-oriented examination of how information professionals answer reference questions. The interpersonal skills required for effective question negotiation and the sources with which questions are answered are stressed.

Full Description: This course provides an overview of reference and information services. We will be examining and evaluating key information sources in a variety of formats and becoming familiar with professional resources. Because the field of librarianship is changing rapidly, we will be exploring various methods and models for delivering information and examining how emerging trends as well as ways to use new ideas and skills that are impacting the future of reference services and access to information.

Additional ReadingsInformation about additional readings from online articles, Web resources, and videos will be posted as the semester progresses, but there will be no additional textbooks for the class that you need to purchase. Just FYI: We will be using APA for formatting of text and reference citations so you may want to get the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), but that is not required. I will provide some resources that can help with the APA rules.

A citation is a reference to an outside source. In other words, you are acknowledging that you found this information from someone or somewhere else - it is not your own original creation, thought, or research.

  • 16 Austin Lawyer 13 (Oct. 2007)We should write sentences that convey our meaning and keep the reader engaged. We should write sentences that flow. That can be hard in legal writing, but we can learn. This article discusses two preposition problems that can spoil engaging, flowing sentences. When you use excessive prepositions and compound prepositions, you chop your sentences up and bog your reader down.Excessive prepositionsA sentence with too many prepositional phrases can become stilted and choppy. See Joseph M. Williams, Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace 42 (8th ed. 2005). A stilted and choppy sentence is hard to read and hard to read quickly. Consider this one:A knowledge of correct trial procedures is the duty of all of the members of the bar of this state.

  • This sentence has 5 prepositional phrases in 21 words. And you'll agree, I hope, that it's an awkward little thing. But now we have better terminology; we don't just say it's awkward, we say it has too many prepositions. When we edit, we focus on removing them:All state-bar members must know correct trial procedure.

  • Now we have no prepositions and a more vigorous sentence. Here's another example:There is no current estimate of the number of boxes of records in possession of the schools.

  • (You think I'm making these examples up? No. This is a real sentence written by a real lawyer.) Here we remove only four out of five prepositions--because not all prepositions are bad--and we get a stronger sentence, although we do have to add an actor:We have not estimated how many boxes of records the schools have.

  • So when you edit, look for short bursts coming at you in waves. Maybe you have too many prepositions. Or look for prepositions specifically. You'll engage your readers more effectively if you cut excessive prepositions.Compound prepositionsCompound prepositions are longer, fancier versions of regular prepositions. Here are my favorites:in order tofor the purpose ofwith reference toin connection withwith regard towith a view towardin the event ofon account ofby means ofin conjunction withIf you want to sound stuffy and stiff, sprinkle these throughout your writing. See Bryan A. Garner, The Winning Brief 243 (2d ed. 2004). They have a formal flavor:We prepared the interrogatories in conjunction with the Popsey matter hastily, in order to meet the discovery deadline.

  • In this sentence, in conjunction with and in order to serve no purpose but to make the sentence longer and more formal. Simplify them:I prepared the interrogatories for the Popsey matter hastily to meet the discovery deadline.

  • Here's another simple idea made fluffy with compound prepositions:Gail said she wanted to discuss something with me in connection with my legal memo with a view toward improving my writing.

  • For writing that moves--that flows--prune the compound prepositions:Gail said she wanted to discuss something with me about my legal memo, so I could improve my writing.

When you edit your document, spot and remove excessive prepositions and compound prepositions. Your readers will appreciate it.

A process-oriented examination of how information professionals answer reference questions. The interpersonal skills required for effective question negotiation and the sources with which questions are answered are covered as well as an overview of reference as a basic library service. There will be an emphasis on emerging models and evaluation of services and sources will be covered.

Full Description This course explores some of the foundations of providing reference service, as well as functions, processes, sources and their evaluation. In addition, several special topics will covered such as staffing models, management of print and electronic collections, investigation and evaluation of new services and other topics of interest.

Course Calendar The course is divided into two streams running more or less concurrently. Each week, an aspect of service will be explored along with a type of reference source or technique.


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